Speech Disorders

Articulation Disorder/ Phonological Disorder:

When speech sounds are made incorrectly due to incorrect placement or movement of the lips, tongue, velum, and/or pharynx. Sounds can be substituted, left off, added or changed. These errors may make it hard for people to understand what is said.

For instance, many children make the “t” sound for a “k” sound, e.g., “tup” for “cup”) or they may leave sounds out of words, such as “nana” for “banana.”

Fluency Disorder (Stuttering/Stammering and Cluttering):

In stuttering the flow of speech is disrupted. Stuttered speech often includes repetitions of words or parts of words, as well as prolongations of speech sounds and silent blocks.

Eg. W-W-W Where are you going? , Mom Mom Mom Mom come here. , I …….. want the ball. Cluttering is characterized primarily by a rapid rate of speech, which makes speech difficult to understand.


In dysarthria speech intelligibility, audibility and naturalness are affected because of weakness or paralysis or a lack of coordination of the motor-speech system. Symptoms of dysarthria include:

  • Slurred speech (sounding as if drunk)
  • Speaking softly or barely able to whisper
  • Slow rate of speech
  • Limited tongue, lip, and jaw movement
  • Breathiness
  • Drooling or poor control of saliva
    Dysarthria is often caused by strokes, Parkinson's disease, ALS, head or neck injuries (surgical /accident) or cerebral palsy.


    Apraxia of speech (AOS) is a neurogenic communication disorder affecting the motor programming system for speech production. Individuals with AOS demonstrate difficulty in speech production, specifically with sequencing and forming sounds.